Pathophysiology and biomechanics of glenohumeral instability
Li X, Yannopoulos P. Warner JP. Pathophysiology and Biomechanics of Glenohumeral Instability. Controversies in Shoulder Instability. (1st Edition) 2013. Editors: Christopher C. Dodson, David M. Dines, Joshua S. Dines, Gilles Walch, and Gerald Williams. Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Hippocrates was the ﬁrst to investigate the pathophysiology of the unstable shoulder (anterior instability and treatment) over 1,000 years ago. Early investigations attributed instability to traumatic events or congenital shoulder abnormalities. The capsuloligamentous complex of the glenohumeral joint was ﬁrst described in 1829 as consisting of the superior, middle, and inferior glenohumeral ligaments.